Machines help with all production processes. So organizations rely on machines for closely everything production-related. Organizations don’t like machines, equipment, or their devices breaking down. This concern is for the reason that breakdowns cause production disturbance. To eliminate this disturbance, you want to stop the breakdown of the machines. Hence the use of TPM for planned maintenance.
How TPM Started
The Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a technique for business process improvement.
TPM originated in Japan in 1971 by the Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM).
Other companies ultimately adopted this maintenance practice and improved on it. At this point, TPM had gained standard structures.
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The process uses a comprehensive set of tools and techniques to eliminate all losses. It’s gained adoption across organizations and throughout the value stream.
The Aim of TPM
TPM integrates the equipment maintenance management idea to improve the maintenance process. It concentrates on procedure improvement by improving machine productivity.
The primary aim of TPM is to increase machine accessibility to boost productivity.
The starting point of TPM is that everyone in the company is responsible for the maintenance of the machines. And organizations buy machines only for the uses they’d planned for them.
For machines to work correctly, they should receive the highest level of maintenance possible. And in this context, “maintenance” includes “improvement.”
With maintenance in order, organizations can find, and free machines of any hidden losses.
TPM purposes to reduce six significant losses in the maintenance process. These losses were captured in the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).
The OEE is a measure to address losses.
TPM works to ensure an OEE score of 100% to attain Perfect Production. In that case, the machines work in occupied speed and bring the highest quality products.
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The goal of the TPM is to achieve the perfect production with
- Breakdowns eliminated
- No Small Stops or Slow Running
- Zero Defects
Six big losses
- Equipment Failure
Equipment failure is production loss due to equipment that won’t work. Production may not have worked because a part of the machine is faulty.
Unplanned stops in the production or the downtime of the machine are equipment disappointment. Common equipment failures are tool failure and breakdowns.
At other times, production stoppage is due to no operators or machines obtainable.
- Setup and Adjustments
Setup and Adjustments is the production loss due to changeover or equipment adjustments. This production loss also affects the obtainability of the machine.
This is a planned stoppage of the production system. Although intentional, it’s still answerable for the loss in machine availability. An example of the arrangements and adjustment loss is changeover.
This loss can be addressed with the help of the SMED program. SMED is short for Single Minute Exchange of Dies. It reduces setup time.
- Idling and Minor Stops
Idling and Minor Stops is production time-loss where the equipment stops for a very short time (one or two minutes).
The operator will solve this interruption by them themselves. The loss affects the performance of the machine. Examples of Idling and Minor Stops are
- Material jam,
- Obstruction in the flow,
- Incorrect setting,
- Blocked sensors, and
- Periodic quick cleaning.
These stoppages are usually less than 5 minutes and do not require maintenance personnel. Production continues after the operators fix it.
- Reduced Speed
Reduced Speed is the production time-loss in which tools runs slower than the Ideal Cycle Time.
The ideal cycle time of production is the wildest time equipment takes to produce a unit of item. This delay-type also disturbs the performance of the machine.
It’s also called Slow Cycles. Examples of reduced speed loss are
- Dirty or worn-out equipment,
- Poor lubrication,
- Substandard materials,
- Poor environmental conditions,
- Operator inexperience,
- Startup, and
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- Process Defects
Process Defects is the loss in productivity due to a faulty part while making the production. This loss disturbs the quality of the production process.
Defects include Scrap and Rework. Some examples are
- Handling errors,
- Incorrect settings,
- Products that don’t meet a customer’s specifications
- Startup Rejects
Startup Rejects mentions to the loss in productivity because a machine part became defective during startup.
This loss will also affect the quality of the production process.
- Suboptimal changeovers,
- Incorrect setting and
- Equipment with warm up cycles